Master Thesis and Dissertations
Abstracts

1.
GERRY M. ALFONSO. April 2005.­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ A Study on Environmental Awareness and problems Encountered by Farmers of Santo Tomas and Busol Watersheds in Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Bernard S. Tad-awan, P.h.D.

The study determined and compared the degree of environmental awareness between farmers of Sto. Tomas watershed and those of Busol watershed concerning soil and water conservation, resource depletion and forest laws; degree of seriousness of environmental problems encountered; the farming practices of farmers along soil and water conservation practices, insect pest and weed control methods and use of fertilizer on the farm; and degree of agreement between the two groups of watershed farmers on the recommended management strategies to sustain the watersheds.
The farmers of Busol and Santo Tomas watersheds are not fully aware of the facts on soil and water conservation, resource depletion and forest laws. The most preferred method for information education campaign is through radio. The most serious problems encountered by both groups of farmers are occurrence of pest and diseases, shortage of water supply, soil erosion/land slide, shortage of production areas, decreasing productivity of the land, DENR’s intervention, unstable farm-to-market road and tree cutting.
The farmers of Busol and Santo Tomas watershed never to slightly practice boundary planting, construction of riprap, construction of contour canals, mulching of crops, strip cropping and construction of check dams. Insecticides and fungicides are always or regularly applied n crops. The commonly used insecticides are red- and yellow-labeled insecticides; tamaron and karate. The commonly used fungicides are Dithane M-45, Funguran and Rover. Herbicides are sometimes or irregularly used. Commonly used herbicides are round-up and clean-up. Organic and inorganic fertilizers are combined always by both groups of farmers. The commonly used inorganic fertilizers are triple-14 and urea and chicken dung, sagana and yama for organic fertilizers. Purely inorganic fertilizer is sometimes applied by the groups of farmers and pure organic fertilizer is never applied in the study areas. Both groups of farmers strongly agree on the following management strategies to sustain their watersheds: maintaining community forest to minimize illegal cutting of trees; undertaking researches to discover biological control for insects and pests attacking crops; discovering high yielding varieties of agricultural crops to be introduced to the farmers, enhancing fire prevention program; recognizing ancestral land claim increase the practice of agroforestry system; enhancing environmental awareness and conducting hands-on training on soil and water conservation; giving cash incentives to farmers practicing soil and water conservation; establishing nurseries to watershed areas as source of seedlings for agroforestry purposes; and adopting/transferring indigenous soil and water conservation technologies practiced by other upland communities.

Location: Graduate School Section, Main Library



2.
RAWAL, RANA BAHADUR. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines, August 1991. Performance of some selected crops under a natural Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya royle Ex Gordon) stand.

Adviser: Dr. Vicente P. Veracion.

The study determine the performance in terms of yield, surface run-off, soil physico-chemical characteristics and changes in soil fertility of some selected agronomic and medicinal crops under planted or grown under a 15- to 20- year old natural Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle Ex Gordon) at the experimental area of Ecosystem Research and Development Services of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cordillera Administrative Region, Loakan Road, Baguio City.
The overall result in crop yield decrease in the following order: radish> bunching onion> potato> sweet potato> tomato> cabbage> eggplant> garlic. Except radish and bunching onion all other experimental crops had lower yield than those produced by farmers.
Surface run-off (SRO) and soil loss varied with the experimental crops. Under an average monthly rainfall of 326.04mm, plot planted to eggplant significantly registered the highest surface run-off and plot planted to swet potato, the lowest.
For soil loss, the result in decreasing magnitude is as follows: potato> bunching onion> garlic> tomato> cabbage> eggplant> sweet potato> radish. Potato plot produced significantly higher soil loss than other experimental plots.
Tomato caused the highest change in soil pH. The lowest change value was observed in bunching onion and sweet potato crops.
The change in OM in experimental plots was not significant. However, garlic crop had the highest change and sweet potato, bunching onion and radish crops had lower changes.
No significant change in P and Mg content was observed in all experimental crops. In K and Ca change, significant difference were observed between different test crop. Potato had the highest change in K, and radish, the lowest. Considerable change in Ca content was observed in tomato, and lowest values were observed in cabbage, sweet potato and in radish.
A negative relationship exists between yield and OM, pH, SRO, Mg, K, Ca, and P. Soil loss was positively correlated. Further, the relationship between yield and OM and P was significant. In the case of other parameters, the relationship was not significant.
The performances of radish, sweet potato and bunching onion in respect to economical yield, surface run-off and soil nutrient changes were found encouraging. Thus, planting these crops under the Benguet pine forest ecosystem, although the soil loss was found higher than the tolerable limit value of 3-10 tons/ha/year, is worth recommending.

Location: CF Library
Call Number: 8




3.
UNTALAN, PAQUITO P. October, 1994. Pre-germination Treatment and Early Growth Response of Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrus, Meissn.) To Mycovam I Inoculation and Nitrogen Fertilization. Benguet State University, la Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr., PhD

Effects of various pre-germination treatments namely: tap water, hot and cold, and physical scarification on pre-germination period, mean daily germination, germination percent, germination peak value, germinative value, germinative energy and percent germination on Calliandra seeds were evaluated. Pre-germination treatments had no significant effect on the pre-germination period but it had a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on mean daily germination, germination percent, germinative peak value, germinative value and germinative energy.

The best pre-germinetion treatment for Calliandra seeds was soaking in hot water, at initial temperature of 80C for 1 minute then soaking them in cold water for 24 hours before sowing.
Effects of mycorrhizae inoculation and 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 0.6 gram, 0.9 gram and 1.2 grams per seedling) on height growth, stem growth, root: shoot ratio and vigor of Calliandra were evaluated.
Mycorrhizae inoculation did not have any significant effect on the height growth, diameter growth, root: shoot ratio and survival of 5-month old seedlings.
The various fertilizer treatments had no significant effect on the root: shoot ratio and survival but a highly significant effect on height and stem diameter growth.
The best treatment combination based on root: shoot ratio was mycorrhizae inoculation at 0.6 gram of nitrogen per seedling.
Soil analysis revealed that mycorrhizae inoculation increased the P, N, & O.M., CEC and pH of the soil.
The recommended pre-germination treatment for Calliandra seeds before sowing is soaking the seeds in hot water for one minute then in cold water overnight. In raising seedlings, mycorrhizae inoculation and 0.6 gram of nitrogen fertilizer yield the best result in root: shoot ratio after 150 days.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 9



4.
BAO-IDANG, CONRADO C. March 2000. Observations and Perceptions of Local Residents at Cabitin, Mankayan, Benguet on Community-Based Watershed
Management. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.


Adviser: Vicente P. Veracion, Ph.D.
The study determined the major causes of watershed denudation, degree of seriousness of the major problems on the watershed, the perceived economic importance of the Community-Based Watershed Management (CBWM) Reforestation sub-project, and the perceived impacts on the ecology/environment of the community. Likewise, the study determined the priority strategies for the enhancement of the implementation of the sub-project within the watershed. A total of 60 respondents within the project site and adjacent sitios in Cabitin, Mankayan, Benguet were randomly interviewed.

The observed major problems threatening the watershed are forest fire, mining wastes and activities, and kaingin-making. Their adverse effects are shortage of water, occurrence of erosion and landslide, pollution, and change in temperature.
The sub-project is perceived to restore the degraded watershed and to contribute to the improvement of water yield, temperature, vegetation and control erosion/landslide. Other positive effects of the sub-project are employment and improved income of the watershed occupants.
To enhance the implementation of the sub-project, the following are the deemed leading strategies: implementation of fire prevention/protection program, implementation of reforestation project, implementation of agro-forest and identification of livelihood projects.
To further improve the present scenario and condition of the project site, recommendations include having a massive campaign and extension program on forest protection; intensifying the IEC program to make the people get fully aware of the importance of protecting the study area; enjoining the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company to intensify its forest protection and rehabilitation program; and highly considering the vegetative and structural measure of watershed rehabilitation.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 30



5.

TACLOY, JOHN G. October 1993. Response of Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon), Rain Tree (Samanea saman Jacq. Merr.), and Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn.) to Root Pruning, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr., Ph.D.

The study was conducted to determine the effects of two root pruning treatments on the average height and diameter increments, average root: shoot ratio, % survival, and the development of secondary roots (and nodules for rain tree only) of Benguet pine, rain tree, and Calliandra seedlings. The root pruning treatments applied was undercutting and combination of undercutting and wrenching.
Based on oven dried weights of Benguet pine, average root: shoot ratios of undercut and wrenched seedlings significantly differed from those of non-root pruned seedlings. Based on green weight and volume of the same species, however, average root: shoot ratios of root-pruned plants and those of non-root pruned plants did not significantly vary. Average root: shoot ratios of root-pruned and non-root-pruned rain tree and Calliandra seedlings did not vary significantly. Likewise, no significant differences were observed among the treatment means of the monthly average height and diameter increments, average developed secondary roots, and % survival of Benguet pine, rain tree, and calliandra. Treatment means of average developed root nodules of rain tree neither varied significantly.
Root pruning through undercutting and wrenching temporarily slowed down shoot growth. Root-pruned plants of Benguet pine and Calliandra developed better root system and more balanced root: shoot ratios than did not-root pruned plants. On rain tree seedlings, root pruning led to lower average height and diameter increments, lower average number of developed secondary roots and nodules, and lower survival as compared to non-root pruning. However, these observations may be only temporary and may change later when the root-pruned plants fully recover from root-pruning stress.
Follow-up studies on the field performance of root-pruned and of non-root pruned seedlings, and on additional root-pruning treatments, application of root-pruning treatments at different seedling growth stages, root-pruning economics and similar aspects are recommended.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 24



6.
BUYATAN, EDGARDO P. March 1995. Assessment of Soil and Water Conservation Measures in Busol Watershed. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: VICENTE P. VERACION, PhD.

The study assessed the soil and water conservation measures established and constructed at Busol watershed reservation, identified problems encountered during the implementation of the rehabilitation program, assessed the accomplishments of the newly created Busol Task Force, and came up with appropriate measures for the improvement and protection of the watershed.
In the rehabilitation program, 11 contractors were awarded with vegetative/biological contract and eight contractors were awarded with structural contract. A total of 346,875 assorted seedlings were propagated and raised in the nurseries and 65.75 hectares were planted to Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya), Alnus (Alnus maritime), Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta). Around 2,778 cubic meters of strucutural measures were installed for five years under the structural contract.
Problems identified were presence of squatters, annual occurrences of forest fires, presence of illegal loggers, timber poachers and kaingin-makers. In addition are existing environmental condition of the watershed which is characterized by the occurrence of high rainfall intensity or heavy rains, landslides, gullies and other forms of soil erosion which caused damage or washed out 60 cubic meters of constructed loose rock check dams.
Recommendations and suggestions include ring weeding, applying of fertilizers, intensive monitoring and constant patrolling to protect the established vegetative cover and additional construction of structures in the watershed, and continuously encouraging the Busol watershed settlers to directly and positively participate in the protection of the entire watershed area in order to sustain production of products and goods and to ensure a steady supply of water.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 1


7.

TURDA, ANGELITO I. March 1995. Some Biophysical Characteristics of Yakip Catchments in the Ambuklao Watersheds, Benguet, Philippines. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Major Adviser: Santiago R. Bacongus, PhD.

The study described the stream flow of Yakip catchments and determined the effects of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration and evaporation to stream flow. Consequently the two variables rainfall and sunshine duration were found to have significant effect on stream flow.
The Water balance model and the Brooks Model were used in the computation of water balance and simulating other hydrologic variables of the Yakip Watershed for the year 1988 to 1990.
Biophysical characteristics such as vegetation, land use, soil, hydrology and geomorphology were also determined. Maps were digitized and presented using GIS soft wares.
The Water balance Model estimated stream flow at 12.36 mm in April 1990 while the highest is at 441 mm in June 1990. The mean estimated stream flow was 126.80 mm for the year 1988 to 1990. The Brooks Model shows that the lowest estimated stream flow was 11.90 mm in April 1989 while the highest is 1,308 mm in August 1990. The mean estimated stream flow is 213.37 mm for the year 1988 to 1990.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 26



8.
LANGBIS, JOHN T. March 1997. Analysis of Fire Occurrence over the Last Five years in Reforestation Projects of the DENR-CAR, CY 1991 - 1995. Benguet State University, La Trinidad Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr. PhD.
The study aimed to know the extent and frequency of fire occurrences and fire management program in the reforestation projects of the DENR-CAR. Region.
Largest reforestation area burned was found in CENRO Tabuk with 1,000.5 hectares or 21.55% of the total area burned in CAR. Areas burned in other CENROs range from 31.2 to 955 hectares or .67% to 20.525%. The smallest area burned was found in CENRO Buguias. CENRO Luna has no record of fire occurrence. Field observation revealed however, some forest plantation burning but were not documented or reported.
In terms of frequency of fire occurrence, CENRO Baguio has the highest with 36 or 22.93% of the total fire incidence in CAR, followed in descending frequency by the other CENROs ranging from 23 to three or 14.65% to 1.91%. CENRO Pinukpuk has the least fire incidence.
Extent of areas burned in the lowland is wider per fire incidence while burned areas under PENRO Benguet and CENRO Sabangan appear smaller are in patches.
Fire season generally occurs from March to May. However, in PENROs Benguet and Abra and CENRO Sabangan fire season starts in January. In other CENROs burning lasts up to July.
Reforestations burning are mostly caused by carelessness, unknown causes and incendiaries. Started only in 1993 to 1995, fire management program/strategies stated in the Regional Master Plan for Forestry Development have not institutionalized or incorporate for implementation. Budget allocations are meant for maintenance and operating expenses only and no funds were allotted for hiring and training/organizing of new fire fighting/suppression crews.
Recommendations included intensifying of fire management programs, focusing forest management program in fire management activities, providing manpower and financial support, increasing costs for plantation maintenance and protection, strictly enforcing of forest laws, involving every segment of the society specially the local government units and the community, selecting appropriate site for reforestation areas, species to be planted and silvicultural treatments to be adopted and intensification of IEC particularly in fire prevention.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 27





9.

MOOG, ALFA O., May, 1994. Transpiration Rate of Alnus (Alnus maritime Nutt) seedlings. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora, Jr., PhD
Six month old, potted, and vigorous/healthy Alnus seedlings of different height classes (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 cm) served as treatments. Ten seedlings per treatment were used in the study.
Transpiration rate of Alnus was significantly affected by height, root-shoot ratio, leaf area, air temperature, and relative humidity. It was not significantly affected by soil temperature.
Transpiration rate increased with increased air temperature and decreased relative humidity. Seedlings measuring 20, 30 and 35 cm had a higher root-shoot ratio than seedlings measuring 25, 40 and 45 cm. Finally, seedlings measuring 30, 40 and 45 cm had a higher leaf area than seedlings measuring 20, 25 and 35 cm.
Recommendation includes pruning (root and shoot system) of seedlings; not planting Alnus in or near water sources; avoiding monoculture Alnus plantation; and conducting further studies aimed at determining transpiration rate of other Alnus species.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 10


10.
ABAD, SAMUEL B., March 1994. Critical Analysis of Contract Reforestation in Eastern Pangasinan. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.

Adviser: Dr. Feliciano G. Calora Jr.

The study analyzed the contract reforestation in Eastern Pangasinan using inspection, charting and mapping reports and personal interviews with DENR personnel. Recommendations related to the following areas: site selection, nursery activities, plantation activities, administration and supervision, and monitoring and evaluation.
The total area under the contract reforestation scheme is 3547 hectares covering seven municipalities. The scheme involved 211 contractors awarded 615 hectares; 84 were community contractors awarded 2532 hectares; and two were corporate contractors awarded 200 hectares.
The type of planting stocks used was primarily bare-root for G. arborea, potted seedling for P. indicus, and wildling for C. merrilli and C. ornatus var. philippinesis.
The average survival rate of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Was 56.44%; Pterocarpus indicus, Willd 79.20%; Calamus merillii Becc., 40.56%; and Calamus ornatus var. philippinensis Blume ex Shultz, 59.10%. Their overall rate of 58.55% is below the national acceptable survival rate requirement of 80%.
Recommendations include awarding of contracts fore mostly to local upland farmers, with the active involvement of the CENRO; hiring persons whose allegiance to the government is not questionable; insuring that the seeds are obtained from superior mother trees; indicating specific objectives of the reforestation; including pest and disease monitoring in the protection and maintenance activities; hiring project leaders who are technically competent and improving their technical skill through trainings or seminars; and doing away compromises by making the monitoring teams be composed of a composite group.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 11
11.
COLBONGAN, RICHARD L. May 1994. Assessment of Contract Reforestation at CENRO Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: FELICIANO G. CALORA, Jr., PhD.
The study assessed the accomplishments of the reforestation contract Program of the government at CENRO Wangal and identified the problems encountered during the program’s implementation.
In the program, 112 contractors were awarded 1,023 hectares through family contract or community contract. Some 868.75 hectares were planted to plotted seedlings of Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya), Alnus (Alnus maritina),
Yemane(Gmelina arborea), etc.
Problems identified were lack of technical knowledge in handling the Reforestation program, annual occurrence of forest fires, and species planted being slow-growing and susceptible to fire.
Recommendations include replanting, intensive monitoring and protection on the plantations, and conducting continuous training and educational campaign.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 12



12.
ANTOLIN, NELLY CACCAM. March, 1994. Effects of alley cropping on some Hydrologic Data and Soil Properties of Upland Farms in Bacnotan, La Union. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.

Major Adviser: VICENTE P. VERACION, PhD
The effects of alley cropping on some hydrologic and soil properties were evaluated in an existing four-year old kakawate hedgerows in the upland farms in Bacnotan, La Union.
The experimental layout was Split Plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The treatments included Hedgerows as main plots and different alley crops as subplots.
Based on the findings of the study, surface runoff and sediment yield were reduced with the presence of kakawate hedgerows and agricultural crops. Positive and significant correlation existed between surface runoff and sediment yield, rainfall and surface run-off, and rainfall and sediment yield. Infiltration rate and green biomass yield of kakawate hedgerows did not show any significant differences between the control and the other treatments.
Soil moisture content was significantly affected by the agricultural crops. Control had the lowest moisture content, followed by bush sitao and mungbean. Peanut alley crop showed significantly higher difference from other alley crops.
Most of the soil properties declined; however, control did not show any significant difference from the other treatments.
Yield of peanut with kakawate hedgerows was significantly lower than peanut yield without kakawate hedgerows. Mungbean and bush sitao did not give any significant difference in yield.
Peanut planted as mono crop had the highest net income of P27, 310.00, followed by mungbean planted as mono crop of P23,34.20. Peanut and mungbean planted as alley crops had net incomes of P7, 565.00 and P8577.00, respectively. Hence, they are recommended as alley crops.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 14


13.
VIRAY, LEO A. March 1995. Conservation Problems, Issues and Alternatives at Mount Pulag National Park. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr., PhD.
This study presents the environmental condition in terms of current problems and issues, development potentials and appropriate conservation alternatives at Mt. Pulag National Park.
This study also highlights the need of forging collaborative relationships among the different stakeholders such as the national movement agencies (NGAs), Non-government organizations (NGOs), local government units (LGUs) and communities.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 15


14.
ULBAN, GEDION A. March 1995. Survey of Different Types of Soil Erosion Occurring in Binga Watershed. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.

Adviser: VICENTE P. VERACION, PhD.
The different soil erosion types occurring within the Binga watershed were sheet erosion, rill, gully, combined landslide and rill, and combined landslide and gully erosions. The average slope gradients were 37%; 86%; 104%; 90.50%; and 98.75%, respectively.
The land use practices found in the erosion sites were kaingin making, road constructing, pasturing, tree cutting and terracing.
Most of the different types of soil erosion occurred on steep slopes with exposures oriented either south, southwest, northwest, northeast, or southeast. Textural grades were sandy loam and loamy sand types, and the dominant plant species found on eroded areas were Themeda triandra, Chromolaena odorata, Imperata cylindrical, stachyoMiscanthus senensis, Pennesitum polyn, Lantana camara and Pinus kesiya.
Recommendations included rehabilitating the watershed; protecting it from fires, grazing and timber harvesting; engaging in extension work that involves information drives, community organizing, and communication system strengthening; and conducting research on plant dominance ratio within the watershed.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 16




15.
BAI, MOISES C. March 1995. Infiltration Rates of Soils as Influenced by
Land Use and Cover Types in Binga Watershed.

Adviser: Vicente P. Vracion, PhD.
The infiltration rates of soils were measured individually per cover types and land use types. The results show that cover types had greater influence than land use types in terms of infiltration rates. The 30-year old Benguet pine plantation in the lower portion of Binga watershed had the highest infiltration rate and kaingin making the lowest. High litter production with diverse undergrowth benefited microclimate effects, deep root characteristics, wide canopy cover to protect the ground surface from direct rainfall which causes splash erosion and thus pore space clogging and crusting.
Using slope-area and elevation-area relationship methods as a tool in allocating areas with appropriate cover types and land use types consistent to infiltration enhancement is highly recommended.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 17

16.
DHUNGEL, MOHAN PRASAD. March 1995. A Case Study of Community Forestry Practices in Sagada, Mountain Province. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr., PhD.
The study was conducted to (1) identify indigenous forest management practice, (2) assess the existing community forestry practice in Sagada, (3) assess the role of DENR, and (4) find out people’s participation in existing community forestry practice. The data were gathered from 108 local Sagada, Bontoc, Sabangan and Baguio Regional offices.
Indigenous forestry practice known as lakon or communal were managed similarly with that of the community forests except on some customary laws on punishment.
Community forestry practice in Sagada involve activity done in the following sequence committee formation, management plan preparation, plantation establishment and forest protection.
DENR activities significantly relate to peoples participation in plantation establishment and forest protection. Thus, the presence of DENR can increase
peoples participation in establishment of plantation and protection forest. The dissatisfaction with the DENR centered on insufficient technical assistance, extension service and financial support.
The result shows that most people were participating in the development of community/clan forests management in Sagada. The respondents were highly participating especially in plantation establishment and forest protection. Highly educated people, however, had a greater degree of participation in forest protection.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 18


17.
BAYANGEN, MARILOU D. March 1996.Assessstment of Park Occupancy within Mt. Data National Park.Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora Jr., PhD.
This study assessed the occupancy within Mt. Data Plateau of the Mt. Data National Park. Of the 260 interviewed respondents, 70% were males and 30% were females. Most of them were married and had elementary education.
Most of the park occupants annual income was P20,000, derived mostly from farming. The land was used for agriculture, for residential houses, for grassland/pastures, for timberland or for other purposes. The different land uses in the area contributed to the destruction of the plateau area.
A greater number of the respondents claimed either that they were not aware that their area is a part of the national park or that the area is no longer worthwhile being called a national park.
The identified problems - squatting, kaingin making, illegal cutting of trees, pollution, increase in population and factionalism/political conflict - led to the degradation of the national park.
Recommended measures to conserve the remaining area included conducting massive information and education campaign on the area; involving other members of the society/community as partners in the protection of the park; and preparing a plan or study by PAMB members in order to control encroachment, squatting, and other problems.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 19


18.

BERAYON, BELEN F. December, 1982. Persistence of Dinitramine and Pendimenthalin in the Soil. . University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Laguna.


Major Professor: Dr. Beatriz L. Mercado

The effect of different soil types, application rates and moisture levels on persistence of dinitrimine and pendimenthalin were evaluated in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions.
Higher residual phytotoxicity from the herbicides was obtained in clay loam soil over clay and fine sandy loam soils at 50 to 110 days due to its lower soil organic matter content. Herbicide residues were very minimal after three months in all three soils. Dinitrimine was lost faster than pendimethalin at 50 to 80 days after application. However, both herbicides were almost undetectable after three months. With sorghum bioassay the general ranking of recovered pendimethalin residues was clay loam> clay> fine sandy loam. With gas liquid chromatography the ranking was changed to fine sandy
loam> clay loam> clay. This is because the bioassay measured plant response to the herbicide, hence only amounts in the solution are detected whereas with gas liquid chromatography adsorbed herbicide molecules could be extracted and quantitatively measured.
Higher rates of application consequently gave greater and more prolonged residual phytotoxicity and higher residues in all sampling periods than the recommended rate.Applying four times over the normal dose gave reductions of 62% in sorghum growth and 60% in dry matter yield three months after treatment. At twice the recommended rate, it took more than 80 days to bring down phytotoxicity to 50%. Residues were very negligible at the end of three months when the recommended rate was used. Pendimethalin was again more persistent than dinitramine although both were almost undetected at three months at the lowest rate of application.
Loss of dinitramine and pendimethalin under low soil water levels was very slow. Marked residual phytotoxicities were still apparent at 110 days with 4 days interval watering with 19.56% and with 2 days interval watering with 7.98% in contrast with the daily watered treatment having only 2.98%. Dinitramine was again more readily lost than pendimethalin loss in high soil water levels with most of the residues still present in the upper 5 cm. soil layer even if water was applied at 100% field capacity daily.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 4


19.
Castillo, Evangeline Tamolang, April 1981.The Effects of Some Transpiration-Reducing Compounds on the Water Relations, Growth and Survival of Kaatoan bangkal (Anthcephalus chinensis, Lamk. Rich. Ex. Walp) and Yemane (Gmelina arborea, Roxb.) Seedlings. University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna,


Major Professor: Dr. Reynaldo E. de la Cruz

The water relation responses of Kaatoan bangkal and Yemane seedlings over a period of 72 hours were studied under two varying conditions effecting plants stress, first
is normal atmospheric stress and second, the combined effects of atmospheric and root stress. The possibility of alleviating plant water stress under conditions was further explored by observing the water relations, growth and survival of kaatoan bangkal and yemane under 3 types of antitranspirants: abscisic acid, phenylmercuric acetate and silicone under .000010M, .0000010M and .00000010M concentrations.
Under conditions of unlimited water supply but high atmospheric stress, Kaatoan bangkal and yemane initially transpired at their evapotranspiration potential rate. Transpiration rate eventually declined significantly through time as aresult of the decrease in stomatal aperture and the physical effects on evaporation by the constant irradiance applied. A correspondingly low internal diffusion resistance prevented leaf temperature increase. Prolonged atmospheric stress caused stomatal aperture and transpiration reductions which resulted to wilting of leaves by the 72nd hour. Water balance was however maintained.
Water stress increased leaf water deficits in the order of -2, -4, -6 bars respectively. Stomatal aperture and transpiration reduction may have increased the plant’s abscisic acid levels reducing significantly photosynthesis, harmfully affecting the plant’s water balance. Both species experienced leaf abscission, its occurrence noted in -2 bars at 72nd
hour, -4 bars at 24th hour and -6 bars at the 4th hour.
Antitranspirant applications to water stressed kaatoan bangkal rendered short-term improvements in leaf water content by delaying leaf abscission. Among the antitranspirants, PMA .000010M was highest in effecting transpiration reductions in kaatoan bangkal.
The addition of ABA leaf sprays caused disruptions in endogenous levels of plant hormone within the plants, PMA directly inhibited photosynthesis through CO2 uptake disruption while silicone coating reduced CO2 permeability to the stomata.
Water relations of yemane are insignificantly affected by the antitranspirant type and
levels but significantly affected by water stress applied and time. At this point, the use of
ABA, PMA and silicone antitranspirants to yemane and kaatoan bangkal is not advisable
due to their detrimental effects on photosynthesis, leaf temperature and plant water balance.

Location : CF Library
Call number: 3
20.
KENNETH ALIP LARUAN. APRIL 2004. A Study on Determinants of Sustainability, Productivity and Adoptability of Different Agroforestry Systems in Banangan, Sablan, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet

Adviser: Josel M. Florentin, M. S. F.

Due to the demands dictated by the changes in the upland ecosystem, agroforestry evolved into an accepted field of study and a promising alternative land-use system.
In view of this, a study was conducted to verify this potential of agroforestry as a development tool in resource management in the Cordillera situation specifically in Banangan, Sablan, Benguet. A total of 33 farmer respondents, who are active members of the Banangan Upland Farmers Association, were interviewed.
The findings show that there are five major types of agroforestry systems practiced in the study site, namely, baeng, chayote-tree combination, uma, payew, garden or payew-garden-forest system, and garden with hedgerows. Conservation practices employed in each type of the agroforestry system are traditional except for that of hedgerows.
Baeng and uma are most likely sustainable as they are indigenous practices. Chayote-tree combination system is also sustainable due to rare or occasional use of agricultural chemicals. Payew, garden or payew-garden-forest system and garden with hedgerows are likely to become sustainable due to extensive use of agricultural chemicals.
The agroforestry systems practiced are generally productive and adoptable.
Biophysical factors and communication factors affect the sustainability, productivity and adoptability of agroforestry systems.
The suggested strategies to enhance the sustainability, productivity and adoptability of the agroforestry systems practiced include having: infrastructure support; streamlining social organizations activities; follow-up of past projects implemented; conducting regular farm visits from support institutions; observing coordination among support institutions; establishing market outlet for tree species and propagating local tree species with livelihood potentials.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 33



21.

DACPANO, PRECIOSA C. October 1989. Pre-germination treatments and Early
Growth Reponse of Acacia Manguim (Wild). Using Different Potting Media. Benguet
State University, La Trinidad, Philippines.

Adviser: Prof. Feliciano G. Calora, Jr.
The study was conducted to determine the best method of hastening germination for Acacia manfium and the effect of different potting media on the growth and survival of Acacia mangium. Treatments for Phase I experiment used in hastening germination were: tap water treatment (T1), hot and cold water treatment (T2) and acid treatment (T3). Phase II, treatments were: forest top soil (T10, forest top soil and sand (T2), sand and compost soil (T3), forest top soil and sand and compost soil (T4).
Results in Phase I revealed highly significant difference in the average number of days from soaking to start of germination, mean daily germination, germination percent, germination value, germinative energy and germinative peak value with 100% survival of germinated seeds.
In Phase II highly significant results were noted on the height of seedlings at 45 and 60 days after sowing, diameter of seedlings at 60 days after sowing, and on dry root- shoot ratio of the seedlings. Significant result was obtained from the diameter of seedlings 45 days after sowing. No significant results were found from the number of days from sowing to germination, mean daily germination, germination percent, germinative peak value, germination value, germinative energy, height and diameter of seedlings at 15 and 30 days after sowing, and on the percentage survival of seedlings at the termination of the study.
Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that seeds of Acacia mangium should be soaked in hot and cold water before propagation in the nursery. Sand and compost at a similar ratio be used as potting medium in propagating seedlings in the nursery.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 5


22.

UFANO, JESSIE V., Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, April, 1990.
Determination of Rainfall and Stream-flow Patterns in a Gaged Mossy Forest Watershed.


Adviser: Dr. Vicente P. Veracion

This study intended to determine the rainfall and stream-flow pattern of a mossy forest watershed from 1978 to 1980 at Mossy Forest Watershed Laboratory, Bauko, Mountain Province.
Result showed that both watersheds, Right Fork and Left Fork, had September and February as the highest and lowest monthly rainfall. It was on October 26, 1978 as the recorded highest daily rainfall. The two watersheds fall under Type I climate. About 77.37% and 76.32 % of the total rainfall were received by the Left Fork and Right Fork watersheds respectively during the rainy months, June to October.
The month of September had the greatest discharge in both watersheds, i.e. 1219.60

and 1683.65 cubic meters for the Left Fork and Right Fork respectively, or a monthly total of 2903.25 cubic meters. The months of March had the least discharge. The recorded peak occurred on November 6, 1980 with the total of 26704.40 and 19283.51 cubic meters for the Right Fork and Left Fork, respectively. The month of November in that year had the greatest discharge.
Rainfall and stream-flow was significantly related. About 72.25% of the variation in steam-flow was attributed to rainfall at the Right Fork Watershed as compared to 68.86% for the Left Fork Watershed.
The geomorphologic characteristics of the two watershed such as the mean slope, steam density, mean elevation and exposure had slight differences unlike drainage density, watershed shape factor and local relief. The chemical composition of the soil at the Left Fork Watershed showed high organic content, acidic soil and sandy loam texture.
The Mossy Forest Watershed has a diverse floristic composition consisting of two
layers. The upper layer is composed of trees such as Podocarpus amarus, Dacrycarpus cumingii, Lithocarpus coopertus, Medinella mytrianthus, Melastoma toppingii and Taxus
sumatrana. The lower layer is composed of the shade-tolerant understory vegetations such as Eurya acuminate, Phyllocadius stupii, Coelogyne intergergerrima, Vicinium, spp., Meliosma pinnata and Helicia robusta to name a few.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 7



24.
MOLDEZ, INOCENTES V. Benguet State University. La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines. March 1990. Ecological Profiling of Kennon Road Reforestation Project, Tuba, Benguet.

Adviser: Dr. Vicente P. Veracion

The study intended to find out the physical, biological and demographic characteristics of the Kennon Road Reforestation Project. The parameters considered were: physiography, soil, vegetation, hydrometeorology, nursery and plantation operations, and socio-economic.
Under physical characteristics, project has a topography of 74.78% severely sloping and is predominantly steeply dissected to mountainous. Its soil physical properties shows that the area is 78% deep (over 145 cm.) and is therefore highly drained. Soil texture is sandy loam. The chemical analysis shows that the soil pH is generally acidic. Organic matter content is high in Alnus and mahogany plantations but lower in Narra and Yemane plantations. Soil nitrogen ranged from 0.043% to 0.3285% while phosphorus is from 2.81 to 27.03 ppm. On the other hand, potassium ranged from 0.07 to 0.46 me/100 gm.
In biological characterization the species planted in the project are narra, teak,mahogany, ipil-ipil, yemane, molave, mango, avocado, banana, and Benguet pine.Associated plant species found in the area are cogon, runo, bikal, bamboo, sangilo and others. The diameter ranged from 0.9 to 11.3 cm and the height growth from 0.85 to 109.8 m for a period of 11 years. In the nursery and plantaion operations, the estimated cost of seedling production is P0.92/seedling, while overall nursery operations cost per hectare is P2,300. Average cost of site preparation, handling of seedlings, and outplanting with 2x2 spacing is P4,164 per hectare. Maintenance and protection cost is P1,212 per hectare while administration and supervision cost is P2,181 per hectare. Average survival percentage is 10.14%
The overall nursery and plantations cost per hectare is P11,713.00, which, since not including infrastructure cost, is lower than the Department of Environment and Natural Resources cost estimates of establishment, protection and maintenance of a one-hectare plantation.
Of the 10-year period recorded the annual average total rainfall is 3651.73 mm. The monthly average atmospheric temperature is 24.4 c (maximum) and 15.2 C (minimum) in the 1979-1988 record. Relative humidity ranged from a low of 84.8% to a high of 88.6%.
In the socio-economic characterization, the forest occupants are mostly Ibaloys and the rest are Kankanaeys, Kalahan, Ifugaos, Ilocanos and Pangasinensis. To supplement income from agriculture, 37% of the household is engaged in gold planning. The majority of the respondents owned an average land area of 1.66 hectare. The respondents perceived that forest is very important in many ways, since, it is a source of fuelwood, water, of housing materials, and is necessary for erosion control. The respondents do not differ significantly in their responses on the operation, management, development and benefits of the forest development programs. The hypothesis was rejected on evidence of greater value of the Chi-square X2 than at the values of 5% level of significance among the variables: programs of the area, benefits offered by the program, employment, participation in the program, and operation and management. The hypothesis was accepted on recommendation for more effective reforestation program and assessment in terms of success.
Environmentally, 60% of the respondents noted the deterioration of farm land productivity, due to soil degradation, and pests and diseases. Further, they opined that the diminishing forest stand affects the weather.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 2



25.

MD. FAIZ UDDIN, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, December, 1990. Provenance Trials of Mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.) in the Philippines.

Major Adviser: Dr. Roberto V. Dalmacio

Provenance variations in survival, diameter, height, merchantable height, crown length, crown diameter, stem persistence, branch size; stem straightness and health conditions of the provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. Established in 3 different sites in the Philippines were investigated. The survival at 15 months and the tree growth and tree quality traits at 51/2 years after planting of 18 provenances under Ilocos Norte condition and 12 provenances under Masbate and Bukidnon conditions were determined. The parental seed sources were Queensland (Australia), Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, all from the lower elevations (0-70 m asl.).
Highly significant (P<0.01) variations were observed in all the traits of all the provenances measured in the 3 study sites which have different climatic, edaphic, topographic conditions except health which was insignificant under Masbate conditions. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences in all traits were observed among 9 common provenances regardless of the site. The interaction between a specific provenance among 3 sites were highly significant (P<0.01) and the provenances showed best performance under the Bukidnon condition.
Highly significant (P<0.01) and positive correlations of diameter with height, merchantable height, crown length, crown diameter, stem persistence, stem straightness and health condition were observed except branch size which was negatively correlated. Volume growth was significantly (P<0.01) and positively correlated with total rainfall, distribution of rainfall, O.M., n, slope, altitude and longitude but negatively correlated with temperature, pH, P, K, and latitude.
The best provenance in terms of survival, diameter and height growth was 13231 under both Ilocos Norte and Bukidnon conditions and 13237 under Masbate condition. For tree growth, tree quality and health condition, 13235 was the best performer in Ilocos Norte, 13237 in Masbate and 13236 under Bukidnon condition.
The provenance 13240 was the best in terms of diameter, height, merchantable height growth. Provenance 13238 had the highest values on stem straightness and stem persistence.
The provenances of the parental seed sources from lower elevations performed very well in higher elevations. The total amount of rainfall and number of rainy days with uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year favored the good growth of Acacia mangium in the country.

Note: abstract only




26.
CALORA, FELICIANO, JR. G., University of the Philippines at Los Baños, April 1992.Bare root Technology of Prickly Narra (Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe.) and Large Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King.). [ Dissertation ].

Major Adviser: Dr. Roberto V. Dalmacio
The effects of mycorrhizae inoculation and 6 root pruning treatments on plant height, stem diameter, root: shoot ratio, number of roots developing from severed tap root and dry weights of Large Leaf Mahogany and Prickly Narra were evaluated. Nodule counts were also evaluated in Prickly Narra. For each species the seedlings under treatment combination with the best root: shoot ratios were subsequently used in the field experiment.
Mycorrhizae inoculation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the stem diameter of Large Leaf Mahogany and the plant height of Prickly Narra. The average stem diameter of inoculated Large Leaf Mahogany was significantly lower than those uninoculated (4.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm). The average height of inoculated Prickly Narra was significantly lower than those uninoculated (14.1 cm vs. 15.7 cm).
The root pruning treatments had significant effect on the plant height, stem diameter, root: shoot ratio, number of roots developing from severed tap root and dry weights of Large Leaf Mahogany while on Prickly Narra it had a significant effect on the root: shoot ratio, number of roots developing from severed tap root and nodule counts.
The best treatment combination selected for the bare root production of Large Leaf Mahogany and Prickly Narra were wrenching with mykovam I and wrenching + box pruning with mykovam I, respectively. These seedlings were field planted and subjected to different fertilizers treatments. The effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on height increment, diameter increment and survival rate were evaluated for a 12 month period. For Large Leaf Mahogany, fertilizer treatment had a significant effect on the height and diameter increment. Height increments were significantly different from January-February 1991. Diameter increments were also significantly different from March-April 1991. The height and diameter increment of those fertilized were significantly greater than the control. However, the monthly survival rates of Large Leaf Mahogany were not significantly different from each other.
For Prickly Narra, fertilizer treatments had significant effect on the height increment from August-September 1990, but did not have significant effect on diameter increment. The monthly survival rates of Prickly Narra with fertilizer treatments were higher than the control, but were not significantly different from each other.
Based on the results of this study, the recommended treatments combination for the bare root production of Large Leaf Mahogany and Prickly Narra are wrenching with mykovam I and wrenching + box pruning with mykovam I, respectively. However the results of this study should be verified in other regions of the Philippines to determine its acceptability, viability and adaptability.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 4



27.

LUBIN, GEORGE JR. October, 2002. Watershed Management Practices Employed in the Forestry Practicum Projects of the Mountain Province State Polytechnic College. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.
Adviser: Vicente T. Wacangan, MSF

In answer to the need to come up with a tool for watershed conservation, rehabilitation and protection, this study aimed to determine the watershed management adopted; extent of contribution of reasons for selecting adopted practices; level of appropriateness of the adopted practices; and problems encountered.
Findings showed that practiced is partial or complete removal of vegetation for site preparation; applying artificial and assisted natural regeneration for vegetation establishment; applying regular and semi-regular for spacing; replanting, fertilizing mainly by mulching, controlling weeds by ring weeding and doing liberation cutting for maintenance; employing vegetative and structural for soil and water conservation; construction fire line combined with other methods for forest protection; and fencing for protection from grazing animals.
The leading reasons for adopting watershed management practices are exposure to and access to knowledge; recommendations of technical persons, farmers/community folks; and observation of widely used practice, planting stock, method, etc.
The leading appropriate plantation establishment practices are the use of semi-regular spacing, liberation cutting, assisted natural regeneration and planting of plan table size potted seedlings; soil and water conservation practices are rip-rapping and mulching; and protection against fire and grazing animal practices are live fencing and constructing fire line.
In descending order of seriousness, the problems meet are prolonged dry season, lack of trainings required for WSM practices skill development, high cost of labor, insufficient or lack of practicum project site, lack of financial support from the parents or landowners, insufficient adviser supervision on actual implementation of planned activities, and uncontrolled forest fires.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 35



28.

RACOMA, ALFREDO Jr. R. March 2002. Assessment of Foreign-Funded Community-Based Reforestation Projects in Ilocos Norte and Pangasinan. Benguet State University La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: JOHN G. TACLOY, PhD.

This study determined the activities participated in by people’s organizations in reforestation projects and their extent of participation, assessed the survival, height and diameter growths and vigor of commonly used species, identified problems affecting the projects and recommended actions to improve community-based reforestation.
The descriptive survey method was used. The strip method with five percent sampling intensity was used in determining the percent survival, growth responses and vigor of the planted species.
Findings show that the reforestation activities participated in by the four people’s organizations involved were land-use survey, nursery establishment, seedling production, plantation establishment, protection and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation. Their overall extant of participation in the different reforestation activities is low with an average of only 8.44 days per month. Nevertheless, they had a moderate participation in weeding and planting.
Of the three reforestation species studied in all the study sites, narra G(Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) had the highest survival rate, followed by yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King.). In terms of growth, narra had the highest average height and diameter increments (2.15m and 1.96cm, respectively in three tears). On vigor, Narra had the best, closely followed by mahogany and yemane.
The serious problems encountered in the implementation of the different reforestation activities were slow processing of billing, delayed payment of billing, of commitment of some members, and lack of expertise of officers and members in terms of comprehensive site development.
The recommended actions to actions to mitigate the problems included the prompt validation of accomplishment of people’s organization in order to facilitate processing and payment of billing; inculcating fully the concept of community-based forest management through series of meetings, dialogues, focus group discussion, trainings and off-farm visits; selection of assisting organizations or non-government organizations that are financially capable and technically qualified to capacitate and train people’s organizations; having continuing information, communication and education to sustain commitment and interest; and preparing and training People’s Organizations socially and technically prior to project implementation.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 37



31.

BALONGGAYA, FEDERICO C. October 1997. Perceptions on Forest Management Strategies in Busol Watershed. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Feliciano G. Calora, Jr., PhD.

The study was designed to determine perceptions on the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments, forest protection measures and soil erosion control as forest management strategies in Busol Watershed Reservation - the study site. Also, the study came up with recommendations for other strategies to improve the sustainability of the watershed. A total of 112 respondents from four barangays in Baguio City and three barangays in La Trinidad, Benguet were randomly interviewed. Also interviewed were 12 respondents from DENR, LGU, BWD and NGOs.
Reforestation as a silvicultural treatment was perceived effective by respondents in Barangays Ambiong, Brookspoint-Aurora Hill, Pacdal and East Bayan Park, Baguio City and in Barangays Ambing, Lamut-Beckel and Lubas, La Trinidad. A great majority of the respondents in all categories of age, educational attainment, and occupation agreed that the reforestation is a worthy project. The project was 100% effective according to the perception of government employee respondents.
Saturation planting which is also a silvicultural treatment was perceived not effective according to 53% of the total number of respondents; said project was found effective by 47% of the respondents. The government employee respondents had very high perception since they considered the project as 100% effective.
In forest protection, fire-line was not effective according to a great majority (79%) of the respondents; it was, however, effective as perceived by the fewer number (21%) of the respondents. A greater number (58%) of the respondents considered foot patrol as effective; forty-two% of the respondents perceived it otherwise, which means that said project was not effective. Likewise, the information and education campaign was perceived effective by as many as 53% of the total number of respondents, whereas less number (47%) of the respondents said that it (IEC) was not effective.
The implementation of both Section 68 and 69 of Presidential Decree (PD) 705 was perceived or found not very effective. More (79%) respondents said that Section 68 was not effective with respect to its implementation. A lot more (89%) of the respondents perceived that Section 69 was not effective relative to its implementation. In the case of Section 68, only 21% of the respondents perceived its implementation as effective. It was only 11% effective in the case of Section 69 implementation.
As generally perceived by implementer-respondents from DENR, forest management strategies in the form of silvicultural treatments (reforestation and saturation planting) were quite effective. Also, forest protection measures particularly the implementation of PD 705, Section 68 and information and education campaign were somewhat effective. Respondents came out with the idea that the effectiveness of the other forest protection strategies including the erosion control in the form of watt ling were doubtful, that is, these were rather ineffective.
Recommendations to improve the sustainability of Busol Watershed include the intensification of assisted natural regenerations (ANR); strict implementation of forestry laws, rules, and regulations; and massive tree planting to be undertaken in a cooperative manner or jointly by various agencies or sectors.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 38



32.

ALEXANDER L. MACALLING. April 2005. Assessment of Reforestation Project of the Cordillera Highland Agricultural Resources Management program in Mountain Province Benguet.

Adviser: Vicente P. Veracion, PhD

The study was conducted to determine the extent of the different activity areas as well as the services/benefits of reforestation component of the CHARM project in Mountain Province, and the degree of seriousness of the specified problems encountered by the project beneficiaries and implementers.
The findings show that the preparatory and development stages are fully implemented, but sustainability stage is moderately implemented.
The respondents perceive that they have gained very much from the activities of the program. The leading benefits derived are minimized soil erosion; improved water quality and quantity; expanded habitat of wildlife, increased forest cover; and implemented nursery operation, plantation management, trainings on first aid, records and bookkeeping.
The most serious problems encountered are forest fire occurrences, damage to plantation because of the trampling of animals, low cost of strip brushing and fire break construction, and limited savings of people’s organization to sustain the project.

Note: Abstract only

33.
CASIWAN, IMELDA B. May 2005. Comparative Analysis of Foreign-Funded Community-Based Reforestation Projects in Itogon and tuba, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad,Benguet.

Adviser: Dr. Feliciano G. Calora, Jr.

The study determined the social profile of members involved in the community-based reforestation project, the different reforestation activities that are participated in by the people’s organizations and the extent of their participation, the survival and growth of the major tree species planted; compared the implanting strategies and other factors affecting the capacity building of the people’s organizations to manage the project; and identified the problems affecting the projects, and recommended actions to improve community-based reforestation project.
Findings show that the members in both sites were at their prime and mature age, males had greater participation than females in the community-based reforestation project in Itogon and Sto.Tomas subprojects. In terms of education, the majority of the respondents in both sites attended high school.
The reforestation activities participated in by the two people’s organizations involved were land-use survey, nursery establishment, seedling production, plantation establishment, maintenance and protection, and monitoring and evaluation. Overall, the different reforestation activities in Itogon subproject and in Sto. Tomas subprojects were moderately participated in.
The survival rate of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya) species was higher than that of yemane (Gmelina arborea). In terms of growth, Benguet pine had higher height and diameter growth in both sites. However in Sto. Tomas subproject, yemane had higher height than Benguet pine during the 2002 monitoring and evaluation.
The serious problems encountered in Itogon were occurrence of El niño, delayed payment of billing, slow processing of billing and lack of capital to finance the activities. In Sto. Tomas, the serious problems were delayed payment of billing and occurrence of El Nino.
Recommendations to mitigate the problems include promptly validating the accomplishment of people’s organization, inculcating the concept of community-based forest management to the people’s organizations, planting of drought-resistant species; conducting series of consultation with concerned stakeholders to get their commitment and support; having more community organizing activities before comprehensive site development is implemented; discussing the advantages of having a livelihood project and generating funds for livelihood with the community members before undergoing activities, continuously training the personnel assigned in the subprojects to enhance their commitment and capabilities, providing mobility and remunerations to sustain commitment, and selecting technically qualified and financially capable non-government organization to train or capacitate the people’s organizations.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 40



34.
WACANGAN, VICENTE TAMPIC. March 200. A Study on Watershed Resource Management with Special Reference to Indigenous Practices in Central Sagada. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Vicente P. Veracion, PhD.

In Central Sagada, Mountain Province, the pine forest plantations have been traditionally established as a part of the cultural lifestyle of the people. Yet the government has not been able to provide appropriate measures that recognize and enhance the successful Sagada Forestry experience.
In line with this situation, a study was conducted to determine the indigenous technologies and management strategies that enhance the sustainability of watershed and the level of awareness of the people on indigenous watershed resource management. A total of 90 respondents from four sitios in Central Sagada were randomly interviewed, of whom 65 are farmers and 25 are private and government employees and those on the business sector.
The findings show that fore mostly contributing to the sustainability of the watershed at Central Sagada is the principle that the people own the land and the existence of the dap-ay, which directs the management of the forest resources, and the utilization and conservation of the forest. Anent these factors was the recognition of land ownership through the application of indigenous practices and their beliefs.
The findings further showed that the indigenous technologies that contributed on the enhancement of watershed sustainability in Central Sagada are tuping, banak and akan. Likewise, their beliefs such as abig and boyon reinforced their forest management technologies.
Age and occupation do not significantly affect the application of indigenous technologies and the enhancement of watershed sustainability. On the other hand, educational attainment and family income have significantly contributed on the reinforcement of the indigenous watershed resource management technologies in Central Sagada.
Recommendations included the recognition of the local communities as the key to the conservation of the watershed areas and their participation in maintaining and developing the indigenous technologies must be maximized. There is also a need to strengthen the customary laws which foster resource conservation and contribution on watershed sustainability.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 29



35.

SERRANO, ROGELIO CABANTAC. University of the Philippines at Los Baños, June 1982. Hydrology of Different Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Based Agro-ecosystems.

Major Proffesor: Dr. Severo R. Saplaco

Net precipitation characteristics and soil and water conservation capacity were studied for different coconut-based cropping schemes namely: coconut with lanzones (C+L), coconut with pine-apple (C+P), pure coconut and grassland (control) for the period of one rainy season (June to December 1981).
Of the 114 daily total rainfalls recorded, 99 produced through-fall and stream-flow while 64 produced surface run-off and sediment yield in the different cropping schemes.
For the pure coconut stand, out of the gross rainfall of 1,635.10mm, 1,296.36mm occurred as through fall and 96.82mm as stem-flow. Net precipitation was therefore 1,393.18mm (or 85.20%) while interception loss was 241.92mm (or 14.80%). For C+L, 1,141.92mm occurred as through-fall and 91.66mm as stem-flow. Net precipitation was therefore 1,232.98mm (or 75.41%) while interception loss was 402.12mm (or 24.59%). Interception storage capacities of pure coconut and C+L were found to be 1.34mm and 1.51mm of rainfall, respectively. Predictive equations for through-fall, stem-flow net precipitation and interception loss as a function of total rainfall were developed following a linear relationship. Comparison of means by T-test showed that through-fall; net precipitation and interception loss from pure coconut and C+L are significantly different from each other.
Data collected for surface run-off and sediment yield were not so meaningful since they failed to show any relationship with total rainfall. This result could be attributed to unnoticed underground seepage and to the variability in rainfall duration and intensity. Available data shows that C+P was the most erodible site followed by grassland, C+L and pure coconut.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 34


36.
FLORENTIN, JOSEL M. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines. March 1998. Problems and Watershed Management Needs in the Lower San Roque Drainage Basin, San Manuel and san Nicolas, Pangasinan.

Adviser: Dr. Vicente P. Veracion
The study was conducted to obtain information on the characteristics of the Lower San Roque Drainage Basin, taking into particular consideration the physical, biological, socio-institutional and economic aspects. The specific objectives were 1) identify and study the watershed problems in the river basin along with the causes and consequences; 2) determine the degree of importance or seriousness of problem consequences; 3) prescribe watershed management strategies, and recommend measures to ensure effective implementation of such strategies.
The study revealed that the drainage basin is being threatened and destroyed by illegal logging, kaingin-making, forest fires, forestland squatting/illegal occupancy, forest pests and diseases, graft and corruption and soil erosion. The findings confirmed the common observation that forest resources depletion is mainly caused by illegal logging, kaingin-making, forest fires and forestland squatting. The primary causes of these problems were lack of livelihood and connivance of responsible officials/employees in the case of illegal logging, landlessness and lack of education for forestland squatting.
The study also showed that environmental/ecological destruction was the main effect/consequence of watershed problems, followed by the suffering of future generation, and the least significant effect was the socio-economic setback.
The most important watershed management strategies were forest protection, reforestation, involvement of schools and barangay officials in forestry information campaign and people’s participation in forestry development and management activities.
The main priority rank of the recommendations to support the application of the strategies for the management of the study drainage basin is as follows: 1) strict implementation of appropriate reward and disciplinary measures, 2) sufficient budget and adequate manpower, 3) strict implementation of forestry laws, rules and regulations and policies, 4 – 5) values re-orientation and stopping or prohibiting kaingin-making, 6) conducting forestry trainings, lectures, seminars and related activities for students and other sectors of the society, 7) controlling/prohibiting illegal logging and 8) integration of forestry subjects in school curriculum. These recommendations were rated important or very important by the farmer, private, government and academic (college and high school level) sectors. In this context, the drainage basin would be capable to sustain ably perform its protection and production functions.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 28


37.
CALORA, FELICIANO G. JR., University of the Philippines at Los Banos. February 1985. Assessment of Stem Decay on Giant Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) for Leaf Meal Production in La Mesa Dam.

Major Professor: Dr. Enriquito de Guzman
Six hundred giant ipil-ipil stumps in a leaf meal production farm in La Mesa Dam were longitudinally dissected and the pattern and extent of decay were determined.
The extent of decay was found to be variable which ranged from 1.6 to 47.0cm in length on the main stump after the first cutting and ranged from 4.0 to 15.32cm in length on the first coppice after the second cutting.
The pattern of discoloration and decay on stumps after the first cutting extended downward as traced from vertical streaks. The vertical streaks of discoloration and decay spread downward centripetally distal to developing sprouts. These streaks coalesced at a later stage.
Two variations in discoloration and decay on the first coppice after the second cutting of harvestable herbage for leaf meal processing were identified. The first type of variation appeared as vertical streaks of discoloration and decay spreading downward centripetally to the developing sprouts and approaching the streaks of discoloration and decay on the main stump after the first cutting. The second type of variation also appeared as vertical streaks of discoloration and decay spreading downward centripetally distal to developing sprouts. However, the streaks or discoloration and decay on the main stump and the first coppice are not connected to each other.
All the stumps examined were infected by decay fungi but only 11 stumps had fruiting bodies. Three species of fungi associated with decay were identified as Irpex, Auricularia and Corticium arranged in the order of prevalence of their fruiting bodies.
There was no significant correlation between the stump height, stump diameter, first coppice length, first coppice diameter and depth of decay.
The suggested recommendations to reduce the imminent effect of decay on stumps of ipil-ipil for leaf meal are: (1) herbage harvesting should be done using a sharp bolo to reduce the mechanical damage on the stump; (2) the laborers harvesting ipil-ipil herbage should be closely supervised so that the correct cutting procedures are followed; (3) an in service training for the proper cutting techniques of ipil-ipil herbage should be done; (4) the application of fungicides on the exposed wood should be done; (5) the removal of fruiting bodies on decaying stump with fruiting bodies attached to it and burning it; and (6) a cutting method was suggested where herbage cutting will be done alternately from the main stem itself and the coppice that develop from the main stem. The last cutting is recommended to be done as close to the ground as possible. The coppice which develops from the stump after the last cutting will be allowed to develop until it attains a height of 1.5m. When this height is attained, the previous cutting method of alternately cutting ipil-ipil herbage from the main stem itself and the coppice that develop from the main stump will be followed again.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 41



39.
DAÑO, ANTONIO M. University of the Philippines at Los BaÑos, June 1983. Surface Run-off and Sediment Production as Affected by Storm Characteristics and Soil Moisture Deficiency in a Secondary Dipterocarp Forest and grassland Watersheds.

Major Professor: Dr. Severo R. Salpaco

The quantity of run-off and sediment from various storms for six-year period of 1977 to 1982 in secondary dipterocarp and grassland watersheds were analyzed. The influence of soil moisture deficiency, evapotranspiration, and infiltration and storm characteristics such as rainfall amount, intensity and duration on surface run-off and sediment production were determined. The secondary dipterocarp forest watershed covers 4.50 has. And the grassland watershed covers .99 has. Both are located within the Angat Experimental Watershed of the Forest Research Institute. The general linear regression and stepwise regression analyses were used.
Slope angle of the secondary dipterocarp forest watershed was 51.7% while for that of the grassland watershed was 26.7%. The soil in the former was sandy clay loam with a surface bulk density of 1.34 g/cc and a constant infiltration rate of 8.30 cm/hr. The grassland watershed soil was clay with a surface density of 1.27 g/cc and an infiltration rate of 6.28 cm/hr.
Penman procedure was used in determining evapotranspiration. Accounts for 34.52% and 30.81% of the total annual rainfall in the secondary dipterocarp forest and grassland watersheds, respectively.
The secondary dipterocarp forest watershed had a maximum soil moisture storage of 286.0 mm. while for the grassland watershed, it was 276.0 mm.
At the secondary dipterocarp forest, 85.8% of the variation in surface run-off was due to the combined effects of rainfall amount, rainfall intensity and soil moisture deficiency. Rainfall amount was found to be the most important factor in the variation of surface run-off. For the grassland watershed, similar variables was responsible for 94.7% of the variation in surface run-off.
Surface run-off, rainfall amount, rainfall duration and soil moisture deficiency accounted for 90.6% and 76.9% for the variation of the sediment production in the secondary dipterocarp forest and grassland watersheds, respectively. Surface run-off, rainfall amount and rainfall duration were highly correlated with sediment production on both watersheds.
Surface run-off and sediment production were higher in grassland watershed than in the secondary dipterocarp forest.
Surface run-off and sediment production obtained in this study were lower compared to previously reported values.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 42


40.
VERACION, VICENTE P. University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City. January, 1982. Hydrometeorology of a Benguet Pine Watershed with Different Stocking Levels. [ Dissertation ].

This investigation focuses on the hydro-meteorology responses of a 10 to 12 year old natural Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon) stand under different stocking levels. The study site is within the 36 hectare experimental pine forest of the Conifer Research Center, Forest research Institute at Loakan, Baguio City. It is typical of other Benguet Pine watersheds in the Upper Agno River Basin.
Total rainfall accounted most of the variation of hydrological variables (surface run-off and sediment yield) and meteorological variables (through fall, stem-fall, interception loss and net rainfall). There was high correlation and linear relationships between total rainfall and the individual variables.
Surface run-off and sediment production varied with stocking levels. Based on all storm events and all storm sizes, the heavily thinned plots significantly produced higher surface run-off and sediment yields than the lightly thinned plots and the unthinned plots. There were no significant differences in surface run-off and sediment yields produced, respectively, by the heavily thinned plots and intermediately thinned plots and by the intermediately thinned plots, lightly thinned plots and control plots.
For the rainfall interception, through-fall decreased in direct proportion to increased stand density. Through-fall was significantly higher in the heavily thinned plots than in the other plots. Stem-flow and interception loss had the opposite trend. The trend for net rainfall was the same as that of through-fall.
For the other hydrological variables, the control plots had significantly higher infiltration rates than those of the intermediately and heavily thinned plots. Infiltration rates were not significantly different between the lightly thinned and control plots. The experimental treatments showed no significant differences on soil compaction.
The microclimate variables, air and soil temperatures did not vary among the plots at 8:00 am, 12:00 noon and 4:00 p.m. The same trend was observed with relative humidity at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m., but said variable varied among the plots at 12:00 noon.
Litter fall production was highest in the control and lightly thinned plots and lowest in the intermediately and heavily thinned plots.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 1


41.
JOHN G. TACLOY, March 2000. Indigenous Forest Conservation Systems in the Cordillera Region, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines. [ Dissertation ]

Adviser: Julia A. Solimen, Ph.D.
In answer to the need to synthesize indigenous forest management systems that can help sustain forest cover in the Cordillera Region, this study aimed to identify the practices, beliefs and customary laws associated with the indigenous forest conservation systems in the region. It also aimed to determine the respondents’ level of awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes towards selected forestry laws and the beliefs and customary laws associated with the systems. It further aimed to determine the relationship between respondents age, educational attainment, religious affiliation and ethnic group and their level of awareness and perceptions of and attitudes towards, beliefs and customary laws associated with the systems and forestry laws.
The specific forest conservation systems are the lakon and saguday in Mountain Province; the muyong or pinugo in Ifugao; the lapat in Apayao; and the kinaba in Benguet. The general feature of the systems is the protection of forests or trees, especially those supporting water sources or serving as watershed for communities.
Respondents are either fully or partially aware of the identified beliefs associated with the systems. They perceive that some are unreasonable and do not promote forest conservation. Generally, they are partially supportive to said beliefs. Respondents are generally fully aware of the identified customary laws associated with their indigenous forest conservation systems. They perceive most to be reasonable and to promote forest conservation; hence, are generally fully supportive. Adherence to such beliefs and customary laws gradually diminished through the course of modernization, exposure to other cultures/subcultures, and adherence to Christian doctrines. The respondents are generally partial aware of the forestry laws presented to them. Generally perceiving that said laws are partially acceptable and not implemented, they are partially supportive to them. Both harmony and conflict exist between forestry laws and the identified customary laws associated with the indigenous forest conservation systems.
Classified by ethnic groups, the respondents’ level of awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes towards the identified beliefs and customary laws associated with the indigenous forest conservation systems in the region do not significantly differ. Conversely, the respondents level of awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes towards the forestry laws significantly vary.
Furthermore, the respondents age, educational attainment, religious affiliation and ethnic group do not significantly relate with their level of awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes towards the beliefs and customary laws associated with the indigenous forest conservation systems and the forestry laws presented to them, except between the respondents ethnic group and their perceptions of the level of implementation of and attitudes towards forestry laws.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 2


42.
Alfredo C. Agpaoa, University of the Philppines at Los Banos, Laguna, March, 1980. Direct Seeding of Phosphorus and Rhizobium-coated Ipil-ipil/Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit/Seeds on Philippine Grasslands: Effects of Grass Height, Density and Lodging on Seedling Growth and Survival.

Major Professor: Romeo S. Raros
Three experiments were conducted to find out the effect of seed treatments on germination, seedling survival, height growth, biomass and root/shoot biomass ratio of ipil-ipil seedlings. After seed germination was completed, grasses around the germinated seedlings were thinned to different densities, lodged and cut to different heights to find out its effect on the survival, growth, biomass and root/shoot biomass ratio of the seedlings.
In all three experiments, phosphorus coating was found to have significantly decreased percent germination of the seed while Rhizobium inoculation of the seeds markedly increased height and biomass of seedlings six months after germinaton.
Lodging grasses once a month and every 2 months for 5 months did not affect height
growth and biomass production of local ipil-ipil seedlings but it did retard height growth
and increased biomass of K-8 ipil-ipil seedlings. Lodging did not increase biomass of K-
28 ipil-ipil seedlings but it retarded growth.
Cutting grasses retarded height growth of K-8, K-28 and local ipil-ipil seedlings and
increased biomass of K-8 and K-28 ipil-ipil seedlings but not local ipil-ipil seedlings.
Root/shoot biomass ratio of seedlings of all the ipil-ipil cultivars six months after germination was increased by cutting as well as by lodging the grasses.
Higher survival of seedlings was attained in the plots where grasses were not cut
than in the plots with cut grasses.

ABSTRACT
Three families of predatory mites, Phytoseiidae Berlese, Bdellidae duges and Cheyletidae Leach, are treated taxonomically in this paper. A review of the bionomics of each family is given, and notes on the distribution, habitats, and of phytophagous and other mites with which they are associated, are included.
Thirty-four species are described, twenty-one of which are new. Of these, twenty belong to the family Phytoseiidae, three to the Bdellidae, and eleven to the Cheyletidae.
The following new species are described:
PHYTOSEIIDAE – Ptenoseius cracentis, Amblyseius lenis, A. cinctus, A. labis , A. linearis, A. imbricatus, A. calorai, Seiulus comptus, Neoseiulus rarosi, Pennaseius diutius, P. improcerus, Phytoseius rimandoi, P. rasilis, and P. glareosus.
CHEYLETIDAE – Cheletomimus rimandoi, C. cendanai, Paracheyletia vulgate, P. lawsonae, Cheletogenes scitulus, C. ampluis, and C. minys. Amblyseuis paspalivorus (DeLeon) and Neoseiulus jackmick-leyi (DeLeon) are proposed as new combinations. Except for five species (one phytoseiid, one bdellid, and three cheyletids), the occurrence of all these mite species in the Philippines are recorded for the first time.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 2



43.

BATO, LUCIANO C. March 2000. " EFFECTS OF HEDGEROWS ON SURFACE RUNOFF, SOIL EROSIONAND FOOD CROP PRODUCTION". Benguet State University, La Trinidad Benguet, Philippines.

The study determined the effect of different vegetative hedges on surface runoff, soiul erosion and vegetable crop yield; the effect of established hedgerows on air and soil temperature, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; the survival and mortality of the experimental hedgerows; and litterfall
production and rate of decomposition. The study site is within the degraded upland farms of Taloy Norte, Tuba, Benguet with a mean elevation of 860 meters above sea level and a slope gradient ranging from 30 to 40 percent. The different hedgerows planted in the study area were lantana, trumpet flower, sunflower and binatang hambog.
In 1993, effecting the highest surface runoff and soil erosion was binatang hambog; the highest vegetable crop yield was trumpet flower; and the highest litterfall was sunflower.
In 1994, effecting the highest surface runoff and soil erosion was binatang hambog; the highest crop yield, decomposition rate and sprout production was trumpet flower; and the highest litterfall was sunflower. The effects of different hedgerows planted was effective as vegetative measures for degraded upland farms. After one year or more soil movement/loss was minimized.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 21



43.
LASANGEN, WILEEN CHIARA TALANAY. March 2000. Soil erosion Problems and the Mitigation Practices applied in the Mount Data Cathment, Bauko, Mountain Province: Benguet State University.
Adviser: Vicente P. Veracion, Ph. D.
The literature indicates that the Mount Data resources are deteriorating at a rapid rate. Thus, this aimed to determine the extent of soil erosion; the indigenous and introduced soil erosion mitigation measures applied by farmers; level of effectiveness of these measures/practices; the level of farmers and stakeholders participation in soil and water conservation; the major causes of soil erosion in the study area; the constraints experienced by implementers and farmers. more importantly, the study aimed to propose means to minimize the occurrence of soil erosion.
The respondents were 228 farmers and 16 implementers from the Department of Environment and Natural Resouces, Department of Agriculture, Mountain Province State Polytechnic College, Mount Data National High School and Maba-ay National High School.
Sheet, rill, gully and landslide are the types of erosions occurring in the different land ecosystems, which include agricultural, forest, grassland, brush land and open land.
The agricultural ecosystem, having the most number of occurrence of soil erosion types, was most prone to soil erosion. The extent of soil erosion was determined through ranges in the length, width and depth. The occurrence of soil erosion is significantly higher in the agricultural ecosystem, and the occurrence in the grassland, brush land and open land ecosystem is significantly lower than those if the other ecosystems.
The seven indigenous soil erosio0n mitigation measures/practices identified are cop rotation, terracing, stonewalls or kabiti or toping, diversion ditches/ irrigation canals, cover cropping, mulching and Agroforestry. The ten introduced soil erosion practices include agroforestry (SALT), grassed waterways, contour buffer strip planting, hedgerows, reforestation, wattling,fascined, gabbion/checkdam, riprap (improved stonewalls) and farm ponds/ water impounding dams/ catch basin.
For the indigenous practices, terracing was the most applied and for the introduced, planting of hedgerows. As evaluated by the farmers and the implementers, the mitigation measures were very much adopted. The farmers perceived them to be very much effective and the implementers to be highly effective. the farmers were perceived to be actively participating in the soil erosion control.
Identified five major causes of soil erosion were road widening activities, rampant cutting of trees, quarrying, kaingin making and farm mismanagement. Observed consequences of soil erosion were reduced vegetative cover and reduced water yield.
Proposals included encouraging the farmers to implement more stable soil erosion control measures, enhancing their indigenous soil erosion mitigation measures, and strengthening introduced mitigation measures.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 22


44.
KABUGI, HEWSON MWANGI, Benguet State University, La Trinidad Benguet. Phillippines, March,1992. Effects of Selected Forage Crops on Biomass Production and Soil hydrologic conditions Under Natural Benguet Pine ( Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon ) Stand.

Major Adviser: DR. VICENTE P. VERACION
The effects of introducing some forage cover cropsin lieu of natural understory vegetation of a benguet pine forest were evaluated taking into consideration biomass production and some soil- hydrologic parameters.
The experimental forage crops were: Stylo (Stylosanthes quianensis) , Napier (Setum clandestum), Centro (Centrosema pubescens), a mixture of kikuyu and stylosanthes, and natural vegetation dominated by Cogon (Imperata cylindrica) and Fern (Pteridium aquilinum) which served as the control.
In terms of surface runoff and its resultant sediment yield, napier, control plot, kikuyu,and mixture of kikuyu plus stylo were most effective. Generally, legumes exhibited poor establishment and hence were ineffective in soil conservation. Significant and positive correlation existed between rainfall and sediment, and rainfall and surface runoff.
Biomass produced significantly differed among crops. Napier grass had highest production followed by kikuyu grass,and legumes had least. Control and mixture of kikuyu and stylo had medium yield.
Infiltration capacity was significantly affected by forage crops introduced. Centrosema produced the lowest infiltration capacity, followed by natural vegetation on control plot. All other introduced crops had higher values. Control did not show significant difference from other crops.
Most soil physical and chemical properties significantly declined. All treatments had high variations, high surface runoff, and high sediment yield except control plot.
The development of vegetative cover was more pronounced in grasses than legumes. Overall, the higher the vegetative cover, the lower was sediment yield and surface runoff.
The results of this study suggest finding out the most appropriate forage crops which can control surface runoff and sediment production. This means may lead to having an effective soil conservation strategy under a Benguet pine stand.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 23


45.
ACWADEY, FREDDIE L., OCTOBER 2006. Assessment and impact evaluation of the community –based forest management program in itogon, benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: For. Kenneth A. Laruan
This study determine the level of participation of the members of the People’s Organization, the personnel of Local Government Unit, Assisting Organization and Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the implementation of the Program; The degree of contribution of the Program in terms of derived environmental benefits; the problems encountered by the People’s Organization and their degree of seriousness in the implementation of the program.
Findings showed that the Program was moderately participated in because of the San Roque dam issue, limitation of membership to land owners or land claimants, lack of full time DENR personnel and vehicles.
The program ensures abundance of water supply, forest resources conservation, increased agricultural crops, scenic landscape preservation for eco-tourism, improved habitat of wildlife, preservation of endangered flora and fauna, soil and erosion control and amelioration of temperature.
The highly serious problems encountered are delayed validation of accomplishment, simultaneous implementation of community organizing and comprehensive site development, insufficient orientation of the Program and insufficient consultation meetings. The extremely serious problem is delayed billings.

A B S T R A C T
Three families of predatory mites, Phytoseiidae Berlese, Bdellidae Duges and Cheyletidae Leach, are treated taxonomically in this paper. A review of the bionomics of each family is given, and notes on the distribution, habitats, and of phytophagous and other mites with which they are associated, are included.
Thirty-four species are described, twenty-one of which are new. Of these, twenty belong to the family Phytoseiidae, three to the Bdellidae, and eleven to the Cheyletidae.
The following new species are described:
PHYTOSEIIDAE-Ptenoseius cracentis, Amblyseius lenis, A. cinctus, A. labis, A. Linearis, A. imbricatus, A. calorai, Seiulus comptus, Neoseiulus rarosi, Pennaseius diutius, P. improcerus, Phytoseius rimandoi, P. rasilis, and P. glareosus.
CHEYLETIDAE -Cheletomimus rimandoi, C. cendañai, Paracheyletia vulgata, P. lawsonae, Cheletogenes scitulus, C. amplius, and C. minys.
Amblyseius paspalivorus (DeLeon) and Neoseiulus jackmickleyi (DeLeon) are proposed as new combinations.
Except for five species (one phytoseiid, one bdellid, and three cheyletids), the occurrence of all these mite species in the Philippines are recorded for the first time.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 43


46.
Cawilan, Julius K. March 1994. Analysis of contract reforestation in the province of Benguet. Benguet State university, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Summary:
The contract reforestation in Benguet established in 1989 to 1991 totalling to 5,517 hectares with an overall survival rate of 77 percent is considered below the acceptable survival limit of 80 percent. The family and community contracts as against the corporate contracts was found to be more effective as gleaned from the findings on the latest 1992 Inspection Chart Mapping ( ICM ) which determines the accomplishments including the area and percent survival of the tree plantations.
Lastly, the overall contract reforestation in the province of Benguet could be improved and the objectives can be realized when the recommended measures shall be implemented and adhered to by the contractors, the people and the government.

Location: CF Library
Call number: 13