SUAYAN, IMEE C. NOVEMBER 2007. Status of Native Chicken Production in Bokod, Benguet [ Undergraduate thesis ]. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.


Adviser: Ben B. Luis, PhD


ABSTRACT

The survey was conducted in the 10 barangays of Bokod, Benguet to document the status of native chicken production in Bokod, Benguet, to determine the socio-economic profile of the respondents, the mode of acquisition and economic importance of native chicken in Bokod, Benguet, to determine the management practices employed by the raisers, the production performances of native chicken, the marketing system/practices employed by the raisers and the diseases encountered by the raisers and the indigenous practices that were developed by the raisers to cure their animals.
An actual survey schedule was employed to collect the data from respondents with no formal education, mostly in the farther barrios of Bokod, Benguet with survey questionnaires as a guide. In the nearer (central) barangays, survey questionnaires were distributed and collected to and from the educated respondents. Other necessary data were obtained from the Municipal Agricultural Office of Bokod, Benguet.
The data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and mean.
A total of 197 respondents from all of the barangays of Bokod were randomly selected.
Most of the respondents were males, married, with an average age of 37.50. Majorities are Kabunyanists, had reached secondary level of education and are engaged in rice/vegetable and livestock farming.
Native chickens were raised by the respondents primarily for food and as a supplementary source of income. Most of them claimed to have inherited their chicken and have been raising for 33-40 years. As documented, all of the strains of native chicken are being raised in the locality.
Range system of raising is the common practice in the locality and without the provision of proper feeders and waterers. Group feeding is widely practiced. Feeds given are rice/palay, vegetables and/or kitchen refuse depending on their availability and feeding is done only in the morning.
Sexual maturity is reached at 6 months old which lay and hatch eggs 2 times a year with 9.78 average number of eggs laid per clutch.
Since range system of raising is widely practiced, native chickens are let loose to have community interbreeding (loose breeding).
Marketing system of the animals take place within the community having pullets/cockerels for P80-150 live weight and cocks/hen for P250-350 live weight.
Diseases encountered by the raised were avian pest (which occur yearly), fowl pox, flu and fungal infection.

INTRODUCTION

Native chicken remain predominant in rural areas despite the introduction of exotic and crossbreed types, this is because farmers are not able to afford the high input requirement of the introduced breeds.
In spite of their slower growth rate and slower production as compared to commercial hybrids, many rural farmers prefer to produce native chicken because of the low input required to produce them and their ability to survive and produce under harsh environmental conditions and marginal management. Products of native chicken are widely preferred because of their unique attributes such as distinct flavor, higher degree of leanness and more intense pigmentation (Coligado, 1985).
Native chickens are still very common in the backyards of most rural people in the Philippines. The native chicken has evolved in a way that allows it to survive and reproduce in a marginal environment and with a minimal management. More importantly, the meat of the native chicken has a unique flavor and texture, which consumers prefer and pay for a premium price for. To date, the native chicken remain an important source of high-quality protein food and additional income for many rural dwellers. Furthermore, it performs other socio-economic and cultural roles, i.e. as a form of savings and insurance, as a buffer against periodic shortages, and as a way of diversifying farm resources and allowing low-income farmers to meet their social and cultural obligations.
Several technologies have been tested and shown to improve the productivity of native chicken. However, most of these require financial and technical inputs that are far beyond the capacity of poor farmers. Nonetheless, some technologies that have been developed by small-scale farmers themselves have been shown to improve productivity and product quality of native chicken, and at the same time allow farmers to synchronize production so as to meet market demand.



SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The study was conducted primarily to document the status of native chicken production in Bokod, Benguet. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the mode of acquisition and economic importance of native chicken in Bokod, Benguet, to determine the management practices employed by the raises, the marketing system employed, the diseases encountered and the indigenous practices developed by the raisers to cure and/or prevent the diseases encountered.
The study covered all of the 10 barangays of Bokod, Benguet having a total of randomly selected 197 respondents. Majority of them were males, with an average age of 37.5 years, married, Kabunyanists and had reached secondary level of education. Rice and vegetable farming and livestock farming are the main source of income for most of the respondents. Through the color and plumage patterns, the strains of native chicken being raised by the respondents were identified as Burik, Dapol, Gulaya, Pokaw, Pulala, Singlit, and Tuling. The prevailing reasons of the majority for raising native chicken are for family consumption and/or as sacrificial animals, cockfighting, and as a source of supplementary income. Most of the respondents inherited their chickens from their parents and claimed to have been raising for 33-40 years. Most of the respondents have 11-16 number of native chicken and are usually not provided with housing, feeders and waterers. Free range is widely practiced which allows them to have community interbreeding. However, under certain circumstances which require confinement such as during typhoons, harvesting season and other community activities, the respondents claimed to either confine or tether their animals. Palay/rice, corn, vegetable and kitchen refuse, depending on their availability, are the feeds given and feeding is done only in the morning. Majority does not provide feeders and waterers and just feed their animals directly on the ground. Since range system of raising is widely practiced, the animals are given the freedom to undergo natural breeding, however, some of the respondents claimed to select which pair of birds to mate (selective breeding). Most of the respondents claim to have observed that native chicken reach sexual maturity in 6th months due and lay eggs twice a year. Majority of the respondents also observed that native chicken lay 9-13 eggs per clutch, hatch an average of 12 number of eggs and are observed to have 21 days duration of incubation.
Young native chickens are sold for P80-150 and P250-350 for the matured birds. Marketing is done within the community. Avian pest, fowl pox, fungal infection and flu were the diseases encountered by the raisers.

Conclusion

Bokod, Benguet is among the widest land area in the entire of Benguet yet among the less productive municipalities of the province. Fisheries were improved since water is abundant courtesy of the Ambuclao dam. Crop production is usually for family consumption only due to limited irrigation systems. Open spaces or grasslands account for 21.91% of the total land area (Figure 2). The open spaces alone could be used for other livelihood programmes such as livestock production which include native chicken, but native chicken is not given enough attention and is barely in the mainstream agricultural and livelihood programmes of the municipality of Bokod, Benguet in spite of the advantages and opportunities native chicken production offer. This maybe accounted, not to lack of technical know how because it is known that native chicken has the ability to survive on self supporting basis or could be fed with palay and vegetables or even kitchen refuse, but rather, to the lack of encouragement and promotion from the concerned municipal personnel’s.
Nevertheless, many still engage in the production of native chicken. However, farmers’ management and practices are still adapted to the old age. The respondents’ perspectives on native chicken production are typically traditional which in turn render less relevance to the animals. Native chicken production is usually viewed not as a means of livelihood but a custom they must follow, intended for the provision of meat for family consumption and rituals, not for the purpose of improving their household economy. However, many would prefer native chicken over commercial breeds and would even go house to house to buy one and willingly pay a high price for.

Recommendations

The Municipal Agrarian Office, together with the other concerned municipal offices must work together to increase the communities’ awareness on the importance of native chicken production in household food security and welfare that would encourage them to increase native chicken production.
Livelihood personnel’s should elaborate/explain the advantages of native chicken production in terms of production requirements and its profitability. Native chick costs only Php 30 a piece, can be left to range and scavenge for most of its nutritional needs or given kitchen refuse and palay. After 6 months, it can lay 8-12 eggs or more per clutch for 2-3 times a year. Moreover, native chickens help in diversifying farm resources or even wastes into profit while improving household welfare/income.
Health workers should also include the promotion of native chicken production in their programmes as a way of promoting household food security and nutritional status, they should cite the mounting volumes of scientific and medical research showing the ill-effects of antibiotics and inorganic medicine residuals on humans and encourage the people to follow the westerners hunger for organic food, such as native chicken. As compared to commercial breeds which are being pumped with so much chemical medicines and preventive antibiotics to which, the residuals are eaten by humans making them more prone to allergies and other diseases such as breast cancer. On the other hand, native chicken feed themselves with more greens that in turn get to be consumed by humans. They also provide readily harvestable animal protein at the same time provide means for households to meet their hospitality obligation to honored guests and to their important cultural beliefs and activities. It is also important to cite the significance of chicken meat and eggs as a source of a higher biological protein value than that of red meat which leads to reduction or even elimination of malnutrition incidence.
The concerned personnel’s should also try to provide available and accessible animal technicians to help the raisers protect their animals and prevent/control disease outbreaks.
Encouragement as to how to maximize the use of resources available in the locality should also be carried out. Moreover, further study on the farmers’ problems and needs in native chicken production within the locality should be carried out to determine a way of addressing the concern and improving and increasing production that would result in a positive impact on household food security both in increased dietary and in income generation. This will benefit not only the farmers but the municipality as a whole.


Contributet by: lpk8202008