Researcher : Mrs. Esther G. Rivera
Adviser : Evelyn M. Bayangan, Ed. D.
School : Baguio Central University

Many of the customs and beliefs of the Ibaloys are rooted in the rituals and practices in connection with birth/ pregnancy, marriage, death/ burials and agriculture. Since the ibaloys believed in an animistic spirit world, in the existence of benevolent and malevolent spirits, they make favorable sacrifices and offerings during the performance of such rituals/ceremonies. Through the mabunong who acts as the medium who says or chants appropriate prayers, an animal is singed, washed and butchered in order to appease a spirit.
Statement of the Problem
This study intended to look into the different rituals practiced by the Ibaloys of La Trinidad, Benguet and their implications to education.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the rituals practiced by the Ibaloys in relation to:
a. Marriage
b. Birth/ pregnancy
c. Sickness
d. Death/ burial
e. Planting and harvesting

2. Which of these rituals are being practiced but modified?
3. Why are some of the rituals no longer practiced?
4. What are the implications of these rituals to education?

Basic Assumption

1. There are rituals of the Ibaloys in relation to marriage, birth/ pregnancy, sickness, burial/ death, planting and harvesting.
2. There are rituals that are being practiced but modified.
3. There are reasons why some of the rituals are no longer practiced.
4. There are implications of this study of rituals to education.


Rituals Practiced by the Ibaloys

1. The marriage rituals are kai –sing and kalon.
2. The rituals on birth/pregnancy are Pasang and Taedew/Kulibag.
3. The rituals on sickness are those that are caused by the spirit of the death (Kafe and Kemtad) and those caused by nature spirits naampasit.
4. Death and burial rituals are those, which includes the placement of the dead “Ufu” “Ukat/ uhat”, “Dagba” in place of the deceased (Dagbaan), practisind burial rites (Driving of the “Aderong”) and “Sabusab”.
5. Agricultural rites are: planting (Porongan) and harvesting (datab).

Rituals that are being practiced but modified are:
1. Death rituals
a. Giving of “ufu”
b. Giving of ‘uhat”
c. Deceased facing the east

2. Rituals related to sickness
a. Caused by spirit of one’s ancestor,
b. Nature spirit (ampasit)

Reasons why Rituals are no longer practiced

There are three reasons why rituals are no longer practiced. These are: effect of education, economic reasons and death of the perpetuator of rites.

Implications of the Study to Education

The implications of this study of rituals to education are:
1. Lesson in school can include knowledge on the performance of the rituals, in the simplification and modification of the various rites.
2. Along the health lesson should include hygiene and sanitation practices and the painful acceptance of the realities of life, instead of the following tradition, the rituals are performed but only in accordance with what the living relatives could afford.
3. And in compliance with the desire of parents and grandparents, rituals are performed to please them and not necessarily because they believe in them.
4. It showed that a certain tribe has his own unique practices that may need to be contributed or discouraged.


1.There are rituals practiced by the Ibaloys of La Trinidad, Benguet which include marriage, birth /pregnancy, sickness, death, burial and planting/harvesting.
2.There are rituals that are being practiced but are modified.
3. Education, economic reasons and the death of the perpetuators of rituals are the reasons why some rituals are no longer practiced.
5. There are implications of the study of rituals to education but most important of these are how education can encouraged practices which need to be continued should be encouraged and those that should be discontinued, should be discontinued.


1. It is recommended that the rituals that have to be encouraged and discourage should be integrated in social studies, health and sciences, character education and in arts lessons.
2. Health measures should also be pointed out especially in practices where these are observed.
3. It is also recommended that the practices of the uhat/ukat should be discourage because it is too taxing to the living relatives, and the practices of the long wakes should be minimized because it is a burdensome affair for all concerned.
4. A Similar study should be made by other researcher with the purpose of confirming or rejecting the findings of this study and for further clarification of facts.

Contributor: L. Kipaan 12082008