UNDERGRADUATE THESIS ABTRACTS

1.
HERMAN L. BUGTONG. ‘Propagation Trial of Deguai (Saurauia bontocensis)andUyok (Saurauia elegans) Using Stem Cuttings’. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: John G. Tacloy
The study aimed to determine if deguai and uyok can be propagated through stem cuttings without application of root-enhancing substances, and whether cuttings’ position along the branch or twig affects their ability to develop as planting stock.
Stem cutting obtained from different sections (base, middle, and tip) of deguai and uyok were planted at the nursery of the College of Forestry, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet from September 2004 to January 2005.
The deguai cuttings under base and middle sections produced shoots after 40-95 days; tip section did not. However, at the end of the research only one cutting had lived shoot and showed initial callus and root formation; the rest did not show any sign of initial root formation. The number and length of shoots/buds develop on the deguai cutting are significantly affected by the portion of the stem from where the cuttings were obtained. The uyok cuttings produced no shoots nor formed roots. Further studies which will subject the cuttings to other treatments such as the application of rooting hormones, different watering frequency, varied temperature of shading intensity, and time of collecting cuttings are recommended.


2.
MULANG, ROXANNE A. APRIL, 2007. “Fern Diversity of the Mossy Forest Remnants of the BSU Agroforestation Project, Bektey, Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet.”

Adviser: John G. Tacloy. Ph.D.
The study identified, characterized and photo documented, and determined the dominance rank and identified the economic importance of, the fern species existing in the mossy forest remnants of BSU Agroforestation Project, Bektey, Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet.
A total of 18 species of ferns were recorded in the study site: 12 species were encountered in the first sampling plot, 13 species in the second plot and two species in the third plot.
In terms of number, Pneumatopteris nitidula is the most abundant, followed in descending order by Pteridium aquilinum, Dicranopteris spp., Davallia solida, Dicranopteris linearis, Pneumatopteris glabra, Amphineuron terminans, Dipteris cojugata, Christella parasitica, Cyathea contaminans, Angiopteris evecta. Dryopteris costalisora and X2 have the least density.
In terms of overall sum dominance ratio (SRD) Cyathea contaminans is the most dominant, followed in descending order by Pteridium aquilinum, Pneumatopteris nitidula, Dicranopteris spp., Christella parasitica, Davallia solida, Angiopteris evecta, Dicranopteris linearis, Blechnum spp., Amphineuron terminans, Araiostegia davalloides, Angiopteris palmiformis, Pneumatopteris glabra and Dipteris cojugata. The non-dominant species are X2,X1 Pteris glaucoverins, and Dryopteris costalisora.
The economic importance of ferns includes the following: used as food, medicine, ornamental, fertilizers, flush powders in photography, pesticides, raw materials in basketry and weaving, and pillow and mattress stuffing’s.
Follow up study to validate the identity of the encountered species, identify the two unidentified species, further determine the economic importance and identify the ecological importance of the species is recommended.


3.
GEMMA B. COMILA. Growth Comparison Between Non-Transplanted, and Root-Pruned Transplanted and Non-Root Pruned Transplanted Germinants of Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex. Gordon). Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.
(Adviser: John G. Tacloy April 2005- March 2007)
Adviser: Vicente T. Wacangan
This study was conducted to compare if non-transplanted, non-root pruned transplanted, and root-pruned transplanted Benguet pine seedlings will vary on their height and diameter growth, root number and length, and root-shoot ratios at green and oven-dry weight.
The experimental Benguet pine seedlings develop from seeds were sown at the same time. An amount was sown in potted soil to serve as the Treatment 1(non-transplanted). The rest were sown in seedbed and transplanted after two months from sowing. Some were directly planted from seedbed to pots without spruning their roots (Treatment 2) while the rest were root-pruned before transplanting (Treatment 3).
Findings of this study revealed that root-pruning significantly affected the height and diameter, and the number and length of roots developed on Benguet pine seedlings. However, root-pruning have not significantly affected the root-shoot ratios of the Benguet pine seedlings based on green and oven-dry weights.
The non-transplanted and the non-root pruned transplanted Benguet pine seedlings were observed to be significantly taller and of longer roots than the root-pruned transplanted Benguet pine seedlings. However, root-pruned transplanted seedlings were significantly larger stem and more roots than non-transplanted and non-root pruned transplanted Benguet pine seedlings.
Based on the result of this study, the researcher concludes that root-pruning two-month old seedlings of Benguet pine results to:
  1. temporary slowing of height growth
  2. greater average diameter and,
  3. More lateral roots within nine months from treatment.
The researcher further concludes that root pruning two-month old Bengueet pine seedlings do not significantly affect root-shoot ratio either based on green weight or oven-dry weight, within nine months from treatment.
Through the result of the study the following recommended:
1. Sow Benguet pine seeds on potted media if the objective is to produce a taller seedling within nine months.
2. Root-pruned Benguet pine seedlings before transplanting to produce more lateral roots; and
3. Conduct comparative study on the field survival of root-pruned and non-root pruned Benguet pine seedlings.

ABSTRACT
The study was to identify the agroforestry projects of the DA and the DENR, determine the level of livelihood enhancement of the respondents, and identify the problems related to the projects of the DA and the DENR.
The Department of Agriculture (DA) has implemented all their projects as claimed by the respondents. Nevertheless, only the farm-to-market road shows a moderate enhancement to the level of livelihood of the community and the rest of the DA projects have poor enhancement. On the other hand, almost all the respondents revealed that several projects like reforestation, forest production, citrus and coffee production were implemented by the DENR.
The respondents perceived that almost all the DA and DENR projects have a poor enhancement to the livelihood of the community. The farm-to-market road of the DA project and the reforestation project of the DENR only shows a remarkable enhancement to the level of livelihood of the community.
The leading problems encountered by the respondents is the occurrence of forest fires during summer, insufficient fund, poor participation of the beneficiaries, poor management of organization officers, lack of participation of members and no maintenance of planted seedlings.


4.
TALIWAN, IRENE A. March 1995. Growth and Yield Characteristics of Benguet Coffee (Coffea Arabica) Grown Under Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon ). Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.
Adviser: Prof. Paquito P. Untalan
Co-Adviser: Dr. Rogelio Colting
The study was conducted to assess the growth and yield characteristics of existing coffee under Benguet pine and pure coffee stand at the Agroforestry project of Benguet State University in La Trinidad, Benguet.
Results showed that the effect of shading of Benguet pine favored the growth of coffee plants. The height, crown diameter, ant trunk diameter were not significantly affected but coffee under pine had higher mean value than pure coffee stand.
No significant differences were observed on the yield characteristic of coffee. However, coffee under Benguet pine had higher mean value than pure coffee stand.



5.
JOYCE M. GUINGABAN and MARICHEL O. SEGUNDO, April, 2006. Growth Performance of Directly Sown Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya Royle Ex. Gordon) Seeds Mulched with Black Polyethylene in Tabangaoen Pine Forest and Seeds Sown in Pots in BSU-CF Nursery in La trinidad, Benguet, BENGUET STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FORESTRY, LA TRINIDAD, BENGUET.
Adviser: Gerry M. Alfonso, Ph.D
The study documented the growth performance, compared the growth rate and determined the survival rate of directly sown Benguet pine seeds mulched with black polyethylene in Tabangaoen pine forest and seeds sown in the BSU-CF nursery.
The seeds sown in BSU-CF nursery and Tabangaoen pine forest germinated after 9-14 days. The Benguet pine seedlings mulched with black polyethylene in Tabangaoen pine forest has higher weekly growth than those raised in the BSU-CF nursery.
The Benguet pine seedlings mulched with black polyethylene in Tabangaoen pine forest grow faster than those seedlings raised in pots in the BSU-CF nursery.
The directly sown Benguet pine seedlings mulched with black polyethylene in Tabangaoen pine forest attained high survival rate.



6.

JOSHI, DEEPAK. April 1997. “ASSESSMENT OF PARTICIPATION IN URBAN FORESTRY ACTIVITIES IN BARANGAY ASIN, BAGUIO CITY.” Benguet State University,La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.
Adviser: Feliciano Calora Jr. PhD

This study assessed the participation of the people in Barangay Asin, Baguio City on urban forestry in their community; the people’s perception, attitudes toward urban forestry and the problems they met with regard to urban forestry; the activities or measures the ensure sustainability of urban forestry program in the community and the strategies to enhance community participation in urban forestry program. The respondents were 104 randomly selected residents of the community who were laborers, woodcarvers, farmers, majority of the age 19 years and above, single, and female; some of them are still the study used descriptive research method with the structured survey questionnaire supplemented with personal interviews to gather the needed data. Statistical tools such as frequency and percentage were employed. The study found that the residents of Barangay Asin, Baguio City were aware of the urban forestry program in their community majority agreed the people should work together towards the conservation and protection of urban forest and that people involved in the destruction of urban forest should be dealt with accordingly. The respondents indicated they are willing to cooperate with any forestry agency in the implementation of urban forestry program and they suggested the participation of women in the protection of forest and other related activities such as in decision making relative to urban forestry. The problem identified are illegal cutting of trees, people do not obey rules and regulations of urban forestry program, no proper organization in the community, no cooperation among the people, implements of the program are the law breakers, lack of interest and participation of the people, inactive officials, and lack of motivation from the concerned agency. In order to elicit community participation in urban forestry program, the following are suggested: encourage every resident to plant trees in their surroundings, barangay leaders to initiate tree planting and forest protection, community leaders to patrol the forest area from destruction and illegal logging, encourage people to their community activities in their urban forest, involve everyone in the community in the planning and decision making regarding the problem, and coordinating with DENR regarding forestry plantation and protection. The activities suggested to ensure sustainability of urban forestry program are continuous public education and information dissemination, strict imposition of the policies, rules and regulations regarding the program, regular tree planting activity.

7.
IGLESIA, NERISSA, B. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies Among Banangan Farmers. Benguet State University, La Trinidad Benguet.
Adviser:Forester Kenneth Alip Laruan

The study was conducted at brgy. Banangan, Sablan, Benguet to determine if socio-economic factors, psychological factors, affect the adoption of agroforestry technologies. The data was gathered through personal interview using an interview schedule and were presented and analyzed using descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and ranking method. Result of the study showed that age and educational attainment, under the socio-economic factors, have influence in the respondents’ adoption of AF technologies. The older farmers tend to adopt AF technologies compared to the younger farmers who adopted not to adopt any AF technologies. Educational attainment, on the other hand, was found out that lack of education is not a reason in not adopting AF technologies. As to psychological factors, all the adopters understood agroforestry as the mixed planting of agricultural and forestry crops in the same area. Almost all of the adopters have a positive perception on the effect of applying AF technologies in their farm. In addition, adopters have a positive attitude about responsibility and decision making. They believe that applying AF technologies is the farmers’ responsibility while it is the government’s lookout to provide the new technologies and needed assistance by the farmers. Majority of the adopters employ AF technology out of their own will and not just because their
leaders/elders practice it. However, in terms of gaining productivity in the farm, the farmers’ attitude is more on the negative side. Under the biophysical factors, the adopters ranked topography followed by soil type, as the influential factors in their adoption of AF technology. Soil type was ranked next. However, only ten farmers remarked that biophysical factors are influential in their adoption of AF technologies.
Social participation and extension contact were also found out to have influenced the adopters’ adoption of AF technologies. The adopters participate more in different organizations and activities compared to the non-adopters.

8.
DIAZ, ALOHA FREIA F. APRIL, 2007. Points of pollution of the Chico River in Bontoc as perceived by the residents of Baranggay Bontoc Ili, Poblacion Bontoc, Caluttit and Samoki.

Adviser: Vicente T. Wacangan, Ph.D.
The study was conducted in Bontoc Mountain Province within the Barangays of Bontoc Ili, Poblacion Bontoc, Caluttit and Samuki. The study determined the level of awareness of the residents of the said barangays regarding the water pollution issues of the Chico River. It also determined the causes and effects of water pollution to the residents, to the community, and to the Chico River itself. It also got recommendations from the residents of the said Barangays pertaining to the water pollution.
Many of the respondents are aware of the water pollution issues concerning the Chico River. The pollutants come from the household, business/industry, agricultural enterprises and some naturally occur. Results show that of the household sources polluting the Chico River, the detergents/soap used in washing clothes, dishes and bathing is the most common. From the business/industry, the oil spill from buses and used oil is the most common cause of pollution. For the agricultural enterprises the most common pollutant is the animal manure from animal raisers. The most observed natural cause of pollution is the soil erosion.
There are various effects of pollution to the residents of the different barangays, to the community and also to the Chico River. Environmental degradation is the most common effect. It also caused health problems among the residents. Fishers are also killed so fishermen loose their source of income. Many of the respondents have experienced skin diseases associated with using the river for bathing.
There are many effects of the water pollution to the Chico River but a great majority claimed that the river already emits an unpleasant odor and the water taste foul. The pollution also affects the agriculture depending on the river for irrigation. A majority of the respondents claimed that the quality and yield of crops is reduced.
Pollution lessens recreation spots for the residents. The number of tourists is also lessened and decreases the income of the businessmen in the area. Due to the decreasing population of fishes, the fishermen in the municipality are losing their livelihood and are finding other means to support their families. The pollution degrades the environment and creates an unpleasant environment for the residents.
According to the residents, there are many possible solutions to the pollution of the river. A great majority of the respondents recommended recycling of wastes, responsible disposal of wastes and strict implementation of barangay or municipal ordinances regarding garbage disposal. It is suggested that the government should prioritize the selection of a suitable dumping site since the current dumping site is sewage treatment plant and conduct Information Education Campaigns (IEC’s) regarding water pollution. Additional trucks should also be purchased since there is only one truck collecting garbage from the municipality.